Dr. Kuang - Ren Chung

Contact Information

Citrus Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida
Plant Pathology
Phone: 863.956.8838
Email: krchung@ufl.edu

Education

University of Kentucky, Plant Pathology, PhD 1996

National Chung-Hsing University, Plant Pathology, MS 1989

Specialization

Fungal Genetics and Molecular Biology
Plant Pathology
Applied Microbiology
Plant-Microbe Interactions
Gene Regulation and Metabolic Control

Past Positions

University of Florida, Associate Professor (2007 - present)
University of Florida, Assistant Professor (2000 - 2007)
North Carolina State University, Research Associate (1997 - 2000)
University of Kentucky, Postdoctoral Scholar (1996 - 1997)
University of Kentucky, Research Assistant (1991 - 1996)
Academic Sinica - Taiwan, Research Assistant (1990 - 1991)

Research

Research studies in this laboratory are directed at understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in fungal pathogenicity or virulence. Current projects are aimed at the involvement of plant hormones or growth regulators in the citrus postbloom fruit drop (PFD) caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, and at prevention of young fruit drop using GA3 and salicylic acid. Research focusing on the fungal pathogenicity or virulent factors in C. acutatum has led to the identification of several fungal mutants that are defective in pathogenicity on Key lime leaves. Characterization of the C. acutatum genes responsible for fungal pathogenesis is in progress. In addition, research efforts are also focused on the development of bio-fungicides for controlling Alternaria brown spot (caused by A. alternata pv. citri) and melanose (caused by Diaporthe citri) diseases of citrus. Our ultimate goal is to develop better strategies in control fungal diseases on citrus. Other research in the laboratory is concentrated on the investigation of the biosynthetic gene clusters and pathogenicity roles of cercosporin and elsinochrome toxins produced by Cercospora nicotianae and Elsinoe fawcettii (causing citrus scab), respectively. Cercosporin and elsinochromes are light-activated perylenequinone phytotoxins. Both are able to absorb the light energy and activated to react with oxygen to generate active oxygen species such as superoxide and singlet oxygen. Specific work is focused on the molecular characterization of a biosynthetic gene cluster involved in cercosporin production and regulation. Partial sequences similar to fungal polyketide synthase (PKS) and calmodulin genes have also been identified from E. fawcettii and will be functionally characterized to determine if elsinochromes play any role in fungal pathogenesis and symptom development by analyzing mutants specifically defective in elsinochrome biosynthesis and regulation. Differential gene expression and microarray analysis of citrus in response to citrus greening (Huanglongbing) caused by uncultured ‘Candidatus Liberobacter’ are currently under development.

Refereed Publications

2013

Yang, S. L., and K.-R. Chung. 2013. Similar and distinct roles of NADPH oxidases components in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Molecular Plant Pathology (in press)

Daub, M. E., S. Herrero and K.-R. Chung. 2013. Reactive oxygen species in plant pathogenesis: the role of perylenequinone photosensitizers. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling (invited review) doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.5080 (in press)

Chen, L.-H., C.-H. Lin, and K.-R. Chung. 2013. A nonribosomal peptide synthetase mediates siderophore production and virulence in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. Molecular Plant Pathology (in press)

Chiu, C.-M., C.-M. Chou, F.-Y. Yu, S.-M. Pan, P.-L. You, R. M. Bostock, K.-R. Chung and M.-H. Lee. 2013. Redox status-mediated regulation of gene expression and fungal virulence in the brown rot pathogen Monilina fructicola. Plant Pathology (in press) doi: 10.1111/ppa.12006

Tsai, H.-C., S. L. Yang, and K.-R. Chung. 2013. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A negatively regulates conidia formation by the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 29: 289-300.

2012

Chung, K.-R. 2012. Stress response and pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. Scientifica http://dx.doi.org/10.6064/2012/635431 (invited review)

You, B.-J., Chang, W.-T., Chung, K.-R., Kuo, Y.-H., Yang, C.-S., Tien, N., Hsieh, H.-C., Lai, C.-C. & Lee, H.-Z., 2012. Effect of solid-medium coupled with reactive oxygen species on ganoderic acid biosynthesis and MAP kinase phosphorylation in Ganoderma lucidum, Food Research International 49: 634-640.

Chen, L.-H., C.-H. Lin, and K.-R. Chung. 2012. Roles forSKN7 response regulator in stress resistance, conidiation and virulence in the citrus pathogen Alternaria alternata. Fungal Genetics and Biology 49: 802-813.

You, B.-J., H.-Z. Lee, K.-R. Chung, M.-H. Lee, M.-J. Huang, N. Tein, C.-W. Chen, and Y.-H. Kuo. 2012. Enhanced production of ganoderic acids and cytotoxicity by Ganoderma lucidum using solid-medium culture. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 76: 1529-1534.

Yang, S. L., and K.-R. Chung. 2012. The NADPH oxidase-mediated production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and resistance to oxidative stress in the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata of citrus. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 900-914.

Graham, J.H., G.C. Colburn, K.R. Chung, and J. Cubero. 2012. Protection of citrus roots against infection by Phytophthora spp. by hypovirulent P. nicotianae is not related to induction of systemic acquired resistance. Plant and Soil 358: 39-49.

Liao, C.-Y., M.-Y. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, Z.-M. Sheu, K.-C. Kuo, P.-F. Chang, K.-R. Chung, and M.-H. Lee. 2012. European JCharacterization of three Colletotrichum acutatum isolates from Capsicum spp. European Journal of Plant Pathology 133: 599-608

Chen, P.-S., L.-Y. Wang, Y.-J. Chen, K.-C. Tzeng, K.-R. Chung, and M.-H. Lee. 2012. Understanding cellular defence in kumquat and calamondin to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 79: 1–12.

Liao, C.-Y., M.-Y. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, K.-C. Kuo, K.-R. Chung, and M.-H. Lee. 2012. Formation of highly branched hyphae by Colletotrichum acutatum within the fruit cuticles of Capsicum spp. Plant Pathology 61: 262-270

2011

Yago, J.I. and K.-R. Chung. 2011. First report of twig blight disease of citrus caused by Haematonectria haematococca in Philippines. Plant Disease 95 (12): 1590

Lee, M.-H., S.-M. Pan, T.-W. Ng, L.-Y. Wang, K.-R. Chung. 2011. Mutations of beta tubulin codon 198 or 200 indicate resistance to thiabendazole among isolates of Penicillium digitatum collected from citrus in Taiwan. International Journal of Food Microbiology 150: 157–163.

Wang, N., S. L. Yang, C.-H., Lin, and K.-R. Chung. 2011. Gene inactivation in the citrus pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata defect at the Ku70 gene associated with non-homologous end joining. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 27: 1817–1826.

Chung, K.-R. 2011. Elsinoë fawcettii and Elsinoë australis: the fungal pathogens causing citrus scab. Molecular Plant Pathology 12: 123–135.

Yago, J.I., C.-H. Lin, and K.-R. Chung. 2011. The SLT2 MAP kinase-mediated signalling pathway governs conidiation, morphogenesis, fungal virulence, and production of toxin and melanin in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Molecular Plant Pathology 12: 653–665.

Lin, C.-H., S. L. Yang, and K.-R. Chung. 2011. Cellular responses required for oxidative stress tolerance, colonization and lesion formation by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata in citrus. Current Microbiology 62: 807–815.

2010

Lin, C.-H., and K.-R. Chung. 2010. Specialized and shared functions of the histidine kinase and HOG1 MAP kinase-mediated signaling pathways in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata of citrus. Fungal Genetics and Biology 47: 818-827.

Lin, C.-H., S. L. Yang, N.-Y. Wang, and K.-R. Chung. 2010. The FUS3 MAPK signaling pathway of the citrus pathogen Alternaria alternata acts independently and cooperatively with the fungal redox-responsive AP1 regulator for diverse developmental, physiological and pathogenic functions. Fungal Genetics and Biology 47: 381-391.

Yang, S. L., and K.-R. Chung. 2010. Transcriptional regulation of elsinochrome phytotoxin biosynthesis by an EfSTE12 activator from the citrus scab pathogen Elsinoë fawcettii. Fungal Biology 114: 64-73.

Wang, N.-Y., C.-H. Lin, and K.-R. Chung. 2010. A Gα subunit gene is essential for conidiation and potassium efflux but dispensable for pathogenicity of Alternaria alternata in citrus. Current Genetics 56: 43-51.  

Weiland, J. J., K.-R. Chung, and J. C. Suttle. 2010. The role of cercosporin in the virulence of Cercospora spp. to plant hosts. In: Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet and Related Species. Ed. Lartey et al., pp. 109-117, APS Press, St. Paul, MN

Yang, S.-L., Lin, C.-H., and K.-R. Chung. 2010. Coordinate control of oxidative stress tolerance, vegetative growth, and fungal pathogenicity via the AP1-mediated pathway in the rough lemon pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology (PMPP) 74: 100-110.

2009

Lin, C.-H., S. L. Yang and K.-R. Chung. 2009. The YAP1 homolog–mediated oxidative stress tolerance is crucial for pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata to citrus.  Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions (MPMI) 22: 942-952.

You, B.-J., M.-H. Lee, and K.-R. Chung. 2009. Gene-specific disruption in the filamentous fungus Cercospora nicotianae using a split marker approach. Archives of Microbiology 191 (7): 615-622.

Wang, L.-Y., H.-J. Bau, H.L. Liao, and K.-R. Chung. 2009. Characterization of pathogenic variants of Elsinoë fawcettii of citrus implies the presence of new pathotypes and cryptic species in Florida. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 31: 28-37.

Wang, L.-Y., H.-J. Bau, and K.-R. Chung. 2009. Accumulation of elsinochrome phytotoxin dose not correlate with fungal virulence among Elsinoë fawcettii isolates in Florida. Journal of Phytopathology 157: 602-608.

Chung, K.-R., and D. D. Tzeng. 2009.  Thiamine (vitamin B1) plays a critical role on sugar utilization by the phytopathogenic fungus, Ustilago esculenta. Research Journal of Microbiology 4 (4): 178-185.

Wang, L.-Y., H.-J. Bau, H.L. Liao, and K.-R. Chung. 2009. Factors affecting the production of elsinochrome phytotoxin by the citrus scab pathogen, Elsinoë fawcettii. The Open Mycology Journal 3: 1-8.

Daub, M. E., and K.-R. Chung. 2009. Photoactivated perylenequinone toxins in plant pathogenesis. In: The Mycota Volume V - Plant Relationships, 2nd Ed. Spring-Verlag Press, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 201-218. (Chapter 11)

Chung, K.-R. 2009. Orange diseases: ecology and control. In Encyclopedia of Pest Management, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1081/E-EPM-1200411

2008

Chung, K.-R. and H.-L. Liao. 2008. Determination of a transcriptional regulator-like gene involved in biosynthesis of elsinochrome phytotoxin by the citrus scab fungus, Elsinoë fawcettii. Microbiology 154: 3556-3566.

You, B.-J., M.-H. Lee, and K.-R. Chung. 2008. Production of cercosporin toxin by the phytopathogenic Cercospora fungi is affected by diverse environmental signals. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 54: 259-269.  PDF

Liao, H.-L., and K.-R. Chung. 2008. Genetic dissection defines the roles of elsinochrome phytotoxin for fungal pathogenesis and conidiation of the citrus pathogen Elsinoë fawcettii. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 21(4): 469-479.  PDF

Chung, K.-R. and H.-L. Liao. 2008. Determination of a transcriptional regulator-like gene involved in biosynthesis of elsinochrome phytotoxin by the citrus scab fungus, Elsinoë fawcettii. Microbiology (in press) 

Liao, H.-L., and K.-R. Chung. 2008. Cellular toxicity of elsinochrome phytotoxins produced by the pathogenic fungus, Elsinoë fawcettii causing citrus scab. New Phytologist 117 (1): 239- 250.  PDF

2007

You, B.-J., and K.-R. Chung. 2007. Phenotypic characterizations of the citrus pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum mutants defective in PacC-mediated pH regulatory pathway. FEMS Microbiology Letters 277: 107-114.  PDF

You, B.-J., M. Choquer and K.-R. Chung. 2007. The Colletotrichum acutatum gene encoding a putative pH-responsive transcription regulator is a key virulence determinant during fungal pathogenesis on citrus. Molecular Plant-Microbe interactions  20 (9): 1149-1160.  PDF

Chen, H.-Q., M.-H Lee, and K.-R. Chung. 2007. Functional characterization of three genes encoding putative oxidoreductases required for cercosporin toxin biosynthesis in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae. Microbiology  153: 2781-2790.  PDF

Chen, H.-Q., M.-H. Lee, M. E. Daub and K.-R. Chung. 2007. Molecular analysis of the cercosporin biosynthetic gene cluster in Cercospora nicotianae. Molecular Microbiology 64: 755-770.  PDF

Dekkers, K. L., B.-J. You, V. S. Gowda, H.-L. Liao, M.-H. Lee, H.-J. Bau, P. P. Ueng and K.-R. Chung. 2007. The Cercospora nicotianae gene encoding dual O-methyltransferase and FAD-dependent monooxygenase domains mediates cercosporin toxin biosynthesis. Fungal Genetics and Biology 44: 444-454.  PDF

Choquer, M., M.-H. Lee, H.-J. Bau and K.-R. Chung. 2007. Deletion of a MFS transporter-like gene in Cercospora nicotianae reduces cercosporin toxin accumulation and fungal virulence. FEBS Letters 581: 489-494.  PDF

2006

Malkus, A., P.-F. L. Chang, S. M. Zuzga, K.-R. Chung, J. Shao, B. M. Cunfer, E. Arseniuk and P. P. Ueng. 2006. RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2) encoding the second largest protein subunit in Phaeosphaeria nodorum and P. avenaria. Mycological Research 110: 1152-1164. PDF

Chen, H.-Q., K. L. Dekkers, J. K. Burns, L. W. Timmer and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Evaluation of growth regulator inhibitors for controlling postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. HortScience 41 (5): 1317-1321. PDF

Malkus, A., K.-R. Chung, C.-J. Chang and P. P. Ueng. 2006. The tri-functional histidine biosynthesis gene (his) in wheat Stagonospora leaf blotch pathogen, Phaeosphaeria nodorum. Plant Pathology Bulletin 15: 55-62.

Reszka, E., E. Arseniuk and A. Malkus, K.-R. Chung, N. R. O’Neill, Q. J. Song, and P. P. Ueng. 2006. A new biotype of Phaeosphaeria sp. of uncertain affinity causing Stagonospora leaf blotch disease in cereals in Poland. Plant Disease 90: 113.

2005

Chen, H.-Q., L. Cao, K. L. Dekkers, J. A. Rollins, N. J. Ko, L. W. Timmer and K.-R. Chung. 2005. A gene with domains related to transcription regulation is required for pathogenicity in Colletotrichum acutatum causing Key lime anthracnose. Molecular Plant Pathology 6: 513-525. PDF

Daub, M. E., S. Herrero and K.-R. Chung. 2005. Photoactivated perylenequinone toxins in fungal pathogenesis of plants. FEMS Microbiology Letters 252: 197-206. PDF

Reszka, E., K.-R. Chung, A. Tekauz, A. Malkus, E. Arseniuk, J. M. Krupinsky, H. Tsang and P. P. Ueng. 2005. Presence of ß-glucosidase gene (bgl1) in Phaeosphaeria nodorum and P. avenaria f. sp. triticea. Canadian Journal of Botany 83: 1001-1014. PDF

Shilts, T., Ü. Ertürk, N. J. Patel and K.-R. Chung. 2005. Physiological regulation of biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid and other indole derivatives by the citrus fungal pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum. Journal of Biological Sciences 5: 205-210. PDF

Choquer, M., K. L. Dekkers, H.-Q. Chen, L. Cao, Peter P. Ueng, M. E. Daub and K.-R. Chung. 2005. The CTB1 gene encoding a fungal polyketide synthase is required for cercosporin biosynthesis and fungal virulence of Cercospora nicotianae. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18: 468-476. PDF

2004

Lahey, K. A., R. Yuan, J. K. Burns, P. P. Ueng, L. W. Timmer and K.-R. Chung. 2004. Induction of phytohormones and differential gene expression in citrus flowers infected by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 17: 1394-1401. PDF

Chung, K.-R. and D. D. Tzeng. 2004. Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the gall-inducing fungus Ustilago esculenta. Journal of Biological Sciences 4: 744-750. PDF

Chung, K.-R. and D. D. Tzeng. 2004. Nutritional requirements of the edible gall-producing fungus Ustilago esculenta. Journal of Biological Sciences 4: 246-252. PDF

2003

Chung, K.-R., M. Ehrenshaft, D. K. Wetzel and M. E. Daub. 2003. Cercosporin toxin deficient mutants by plasmid tagging in the asexual fungus Cercospora nicotianae. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 270: 103-113. PDF

Chung, K.-R., T. Shilts, Ü. Ertürk, L. W. Timmer and P. P. Ueng. 2003. Indole derivatives produced by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causing lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus. FEMS Microbiology Letters 226: 23-30. PDF

Chung, K.-R., M. E. Daub and M. Ehrenshaft. 2003. Expression of cercosporin toxin resistance gene (CRG1) as a dicistronic unit with a functionally unrelated gene in the phytopathogenic fungus Cercospora nicotianae. Current Genetics 43: 415-424. PDF

Li, W., R. Yuan, J. K. Burns, L. W. Timmer and K.-R. Chung. 2003. Genes for hormone biosynthesis and regulation are highly expressed in citrus flowers infected with the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 128 (4): 578-583. (ASHS Outstanding Cross Commodity Publication for 2004 Award) PDF

Ueng, P. P., E. Reszka, K.-R. Chung, E. Arseniuk and J. M. Krupinsky. 2003. Comparison of glyceraldehydy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes in cereal Phaeosphaeria species. Plant Pathology Bulletin 12: 255-268.

Chung, K.-R., M. E. Daub, K. Kuchler and C. Schüller. 2003. The CRG1 gene required for resistance to the singlet oxygen-generating cercosporin toxin in Cercospora nicotianae encodes a putative fungal transcription factor. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication 302: 302-310. PDF

Chung, K.-R. 2003. Involvement of calcium/calmodulin signaling in cercosporin toxin biosynthesis by Cercospora nicotianae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 1187-1196. PDF

2002 and before

Chung, K.-R., T. Shilts, W. Li and L. W. Timmer. 2002. Engineering a genetic transformation system for Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal fungus of lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus. FEMS Microbiology Letters 213: 33-39. PDF

Chung, K.-R., M. Ehrenshaft and M. E. Daub. 2002. Functional expression and cellular localization of cercosporin-resistant proteins fused with the GFP in Cercospora nicotianae. Current Genetics 41: 159-167. PDF

Ehrenshaft, M., K.-R. Chung, A. E. Jenns and M. E. Daub. 1999. Functional characterization of SOR1, a gene required for resistance to photosensitizing toxins in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae. Current Genetics 34: 478-485. PDF

Chung, K.-R., A. E. Jenns, M. Ehrenshaft and M. E. Daub. 1999. A novel gene required for cercosporin toxin resistance in the fungus, Cercospora nicotianae. Molecular General Genetics 262: 382-389. PDF

Ehrenshaft, M., A. E. Jenns, K.-R. Chung and M. E. Daub. 1998. SOR1, a gene required for photosensitizer and singlet oxygen resistance in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae is highly conserved in divergent organisms. Molecular Cell 1(4): 603-609. PDF

Chung, K.-R. and C. L. Schardl. 1997. Sexual cycle and horizontal transmission of the grass symbiont, Epichloë typhina. Mycological Research 101: 295-301. PDF

Chung, K.-R. and C. L. Schardl. 1997. Vegetative compatibility between and within Epichloë species. Mycologia 89: 558-565.  PDF

Chung, K.-R., W. Hollin, M. R. Siegel and C. L. Schardl. 1997. Genetics of host specificity in Epichloë typhina. Phytopathology 87: 599-605. PDF

Schardl, C. L., A. Leuchtmann, K.-R. Chung, D. Penny and M. R. Siegel. 1997. Coevolution by common descent of fungal symbionts Epichloë species and grass hosts. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 133-143. PDF

Chung, K.-R., A. Leuchtmann and C. L. Schardl. 1996. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA and plasmids in the ascomycetous fungus, Epichloë typhina. Genetics 142: 259-265. PDF

Li. D., K.-R. Chung, D. A. Smith and C. L. Schardl. 1995. The Fusarium solani gene encoding kievitone hydratase, a secreted enzyme that catalyzes detoxification of a bean phytoalexin. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 8: 388-397.  PDF

Chen, S.-C. G., M.-C. Cheng, K.-R. Chung, N.-J. Yu and M.-C. Chen. 1992. Expression of the rice chloroplast psa A-psa B-rps 14 gene cluster. Plant Science 81: 93-102.  PDF

Tzeng, D. D., M.-H. Lee, K.-R. Chung and J. E. DeVay. 1990. Products in light-mediated reactions of free methionine-riboflavin mixtures that are biocidal to microorganisms. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 36: 500-506.  PDF

Books, Contributor of Chapter and Proceedings

You, B.-J., H.-Q. Chen, and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Identification of antagonists for controlling foliar fungal pathogens of citrus. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticulture Society 119:73-77.

Liao, H.-L., H.-Q. Chen, and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Plant hormone inhibitors for reduction of postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticulture Society 119:78-81.

Weiland, J. J., K.-R. Chung, and J. C. Suttle. 2006. The role of cercosporin in the virulence of Cercospora spp. to plant hosts. In: 1st International Symposium on Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet. APS press, St. Paul, MN (in press).

Daub, M. E., M. Ehrenshaft, A. E. Jenns, and K.-R. Chung. 1998. Active oxygen in fungal pathogenesis of plants–The role of cercosporin in Cercospora disease. Pp. 31-51. Phytochemical Signals and Plant-Microbe Interactions. Edited by Romeo et al., Plenum Press, New York.

Ehrenshaft, M., M. E. Daub, P. Bilski, M. Y. Li, C. F. Chignell, A. E. Jenns, and K.-R. Chung. 2000. A divergence in the biosynthetic pathway and a new role for vitamin B6. Pp. 17-22. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Vitamin B6 and PQQ-dependent proteins. Edited by A. Iriate, H. M. Kagan, and M. Martinez-Carrion. Birkhauser Verlag Basel, Switzerland.

Schardl, C. L., J. Wang, H. H. Wilkinson, and K.-R. Chung. 1999. Genetic analysis of biosynthesis and roles of anti-herbivore alkaloids produced by grass endophytes. Pp. 118-125. Proceeding of International Symposium of Mycotoxicology ‘99 Mycotoxin Contamination: Health Risk and Prevention Project, Chiba, Japan.

Schardl, C. L., H.-F. Tsai, K.-R. Chung, A. Leuchtmann, and M. R. Siegel. 1996. Evolution of Epichloë species symbioses with grasses. Pp. 541-546. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions Edited by Stacey et al. International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Non-Refereed Publications

Chung, K.-R. and L. W. Timmer. 2007. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Phaeoramularia Fruit and Leaf Spot (PFLS). UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP155) (Fact Sheet PP-234, 3 pages).

Daub, M. E. and K.-R. Chung. 2007. Cercosporin: A photoactivated toxins in plant disease. APS feature publication (online).  PDF

Chung, K.-R. 2006. The potential threat of exotic diseases to Florida citrus. Citrus Industry Magazine87 (6): 20-22.

Chung, K.-R., I. A. Khan, and R. H. Brlansky. 2006. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Witches’ Broom Disease of Lime (WBDL) UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP150) (Fact Sheet PP-228).

Chung, K.-R. and R. H. Brlansky. 2006. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Citrus Tristeza Virus - Stem Pitting (CTV-SP). UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP137) (Fact Sheet PP-227).

Chung, K.-R. and R. H. Brlansky. 2006. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Citrus Leprosis. UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP148) (Fact Sheet PP-226).

Brlansky, R. H., K.-R. Chung, and M. E. Rogers. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing). University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/) (Fact Sheet PP-148).

Timmer, L.W., and K.-R Chung. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Greasy Spot. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CG018). University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (Fact Sheet PP-144).

Timmer, L. W., and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Melanose. University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CG019) (Fact Sheet PP-145).

Timmer, L. W., and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Citrus Scab. University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CG020) (Fact Sheet PP-146).

Timmer, L. W., and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Alternaria Brown Spot. University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CG021) (Fact Sheet PP-147).

Timmer, L. W., N. Peres and K.-R. Chung. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Postbloom Fruit Drop. University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CG007) (Fact Sheet PP-45).

Timmer, L. W., J. H. Graham, H. L. Chamberlain, K.-R. Chung, and T. S. Schubert. 2006. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Citrus Canker. University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CG040) (Fact Sheet PP-182).

Chung, K.-R., and L. W. Timmer. 2005. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Sweet Orange Scab. UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP147) (Fact Sheet PP-224).

Chung, K.-R., N. J. Ko and S.-C. Hung. 2005. Some facts about citrus greening (Huanglongbing): An exotic disease to Florida. Citrus Industry Magazine 86 (5): 7-9 and 38.

Chung, K.-R. and R. H. Brlansky. 2005. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP137) (Fact Sheet PP-223).

Chung, K.-R., N. Peres and L. W. Timmer. 2005. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Black Spot. UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP135) (Fact Sheet PP-213).

Chung, K.-R. and R. H. Brlansky. 2005. Citrus diseases exotic to Florida: Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening). UF/IFAS EDIS (Electronic Data Information Systems) Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP133) (Fact Sheet PP-210).

Chung, K.-R. and L. W. Timmer. 2005. Update of PFD controls in Florida. Citrus Industry Magazine 86 (2): 8-10.

Roberts, P. D., H. L. Chamberlain, K.-R. Chung, T. S. Schubert and L. W. Timmer. 2004. Updated canker decontamination methods. Citrus and Vegetable Magazine 69: 24-28. (www.citrusandvegetable.com/home/2004_DecCanker.shtml)

Chamberlain, H. L., P. D. Roberts, L. W. Timmer, K.-R. Chung and M. Zekri. 2003. CROP ALERT: A Citrus Canker Fact Sheet for Homeowners. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP116) (Fact Sheet PP-194).

Chamberlain, H. L., P. D. Roberts, L. W. Timmer, K.-R. Chung and M. Zekri. 2003. Alerta: Una Hoja Informativa para el Hogar Sobre el Cancro de los Citricos. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP125) (Fact Sheet PP-194-S).

Chung, K.-R., T. S. Shubert, J. H. Graham and L. W. Timmer. 2002, 2003, 2004. Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide - Citrus Canker, University of Florida. UF/IFAS EDIS Database (Fact Sheet PP-182).

Timmer, L.W., Peres, N., P. D. Roberts and K.-R Chung. 2002. PFD control. Citrus & Vegetable Magazine 66 (9): 6, 7, 46. (www.citrusandvegetable.com/home/2002_MayPFD.shtml).

Timmer, L. W., P. D. Roberts, K.-R. Chung and A. Bhatia. 2001. Postbloom Fruit Drop. Publication No. SP-165. University of Florida, IFAS, EDIS, Gainesville. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH094).

Timmer, L. W., P. D. Roberts, K.-R. Chung and A. Bhatia. 2001. Alternaria Brown Spot. Publication No. SP-152. University of Florida, IFAS, EDIS, Gainesville. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH017).

Timmer, L. W., P. D. Roberts, K.-R. Chung and A. Bhatia. 2001. Citrus Scab. Publication No. PP-153. University of Florida, IFAS, EDIS, Gainesville. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH014) (Fact Sheet PP-153).

Timmer, L. W., P. D. Roberts, K.-R. Chung and A. Bhatia. 2001. Greasy Spot. Publication No. PP-154. University of Florida, IFAS, EDIS, Gainesville. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/CH015) (Fact Sheet PP-154).

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